Green tea is made from the plant Camellia Sinensis. The tea plant is a perennial herb belonging to the Camellia family originated in China, Tibet and northern India. There are two main varieties of tea plants. Small leaf variety, known as Camellia sinensis, thrives in cool, high mountain regions of China and Japan. The broad leaf variety, known as Camellia Assam, grows best in tropical climates, moist, of Northeast India and the Szechuan and Yunnan provinces of China. The plant has shiny leaves, dark green and the flowers small, white.
Origin of Oolong tea
There are many hybrids that originate in these two species, which were developed to meet different conditions.
According to an old Chinese saying, 'high tea comes from high mountains'. Altitude and mountain mists create a protection against too much sunlight and provides temperature and humidity to allow the leaves to develop slowly and remain soft, green tea is a high quality result. As with wine, quality and flavor of green tea are influenced by both environmental conditions (soil, climate, altitude) and the producer of tea (which decides when and how the leaf is harvested and processed as).
Most tea plants have a period of growth and usually a rest in winter. Leaves are collected when new shoots spring up. In warm climates, the plant has several crops that can be collected throughout the year. In cold conditions at high levels, the harvest is different. Harvest leaves early, usually in spring, give the best quality tea.
There are four main types of tea: green tea, black tea, oolong and white. All types of tea come from the same plant. Specific variety of tea plant and how the leaves are processed after being collected determines the type of tea made.
How to grow green tea
Tea grows mainly between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, requiring up to 1000-1250 mm of precipitation per year and an ideal temperature between 10 ° and 30 ° C. Grows from sea level up to 2,400 meters altitude.
Garden tea (tea culture) is where the potential for tea flavor will be generated and this ensures very best care and growing conditions. This means, in some cases, planting trees to generate shade or protection from strong winds, especially in the plains of Assam.
Plants are placed in rows about a meter away. Bushes should be cut to four or five years to rejuvenate and to keep them at a convenient height for pickers. This is known as "surface picking".
A tea bush can produce about 50-70 years, but after 50 years of tea harvest is reduced. At this point it is considered that the old bushes can be replaced with young plants grown in nurseries.
Green tea harvesting
Harvesting rounds depend on climate, the fresh grown can be harvested every 7-12 days during the flowering season. Tea picking is tiring and requires hard work (to produce a kilo of unprocessed tea is required between two and three thousand tea leaves) and is a procedure that requires special skill.
Tea Pickers learn to recognize the exact moment at which branches should be collected. It is important to ensure that the fragile leaves are collected to produce the best tea.
After picking, the leaves are transported to the factory for processing. Fields are usually near the factory.